Renal involvement in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is not usually apparent but in cases with clinical involvement varies from reversible acute dysfunction to chronic irreversible damage. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial to prevent disease progression and irreversible chronic kidney disease (CKD). The ultimate outcome of CKD in many patients is the need for renal replacement therapy, which necessitates ever-growing dialysis and transplantation programs, thereby imposing a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. In a third-world country like Pakistan, increased burden due to CKD can be very hard on families. Doctor visits, hospitalization, and dialysis are all out-of-pocket expenses, therefore prevention, early detection, and timely intervention are the only cost-effective strategies. We report a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) due to PNH. This case shows AKI as one of the complications of PNH which may have a clinical course like acute tubular necrosis (ATN). This could be due to ATN or AKI superimposed on CKD due to hemosiderin deposits in the renal tubular epithelial cells. Our patient was dialyzed initially and discharged with a permanent catheter in place with advice to continue dialysis three times a week. He required dialysis for 1 week then started producing urine. His subsequent outpatient visits showed improved renal function. The permanent catheter was removed and maintenance dialysis was stopped. Here, we briefly review the literature on renal involvement in PNH, treatment options for PNH and pigment-induced nephropathy followed by a question-and-answer session at the clinicopathological conference held on March 4, 2011, at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation in Karachi, Pakistan.
- Acute kidney injury
- Chronic kidney disease
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
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