Objectives: The prevalence and appearance of sesamoid bones in the foot vary considerably among different populations and ethnic groups. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and distribution patterns of foot sesamoid bones among Omani patients referred for radiological investigation.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective study among patients who had been referred for foot X-ray from January to December 2018. We used the chi-square test to determine the gender and age influence on the prevalence of sesamoid bones, and the Spearman's correlation coefﬁcient to assess the coincidence of speciﬁc distributions of sesamoid bones at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints.
Results: A total of 774 foot radiographs composed of 442 right foot radiographs and 332 left foot radiographs were reviewed for the presence of sesamoid bones at MTP and interphalangeal (IP) joints of the foot. We observed a high prevalence rate of sesamoid bones at the fifth MTP joint (13.7%), and first IP of the great toe (9.9%). There were nine distinctive patterns of sesamoid bones. The coincidence of sesamoid bones at two or more MTP joints was 14.6%, with a high prevalence rate at first and fifth MTP joints (10.3%). Moreover, the prevalence rate of sesamoid bones increased with increasing age at the fifth MTP joint.
Conclusions: The prevalence of sesamoid bones in the foot is considerably high in Omani subjects and needs further prospective studies. Meanwhile, our findings could be helpful for clinicians to consider ailments of sesamoid bones during differential diagnosis in Omani patients who present with foot pain and discomfort.