The atlas (C1) is known to present congenital anomalies in its anterior and posterior arches. The reported incidence of C1 anomalies is varied among the ethnic groups. We sought to determine the prevalence and various existing variations of C1 arch congenital anomalies in Omani subjects. This study was carried out by reviewing the cervical spine computed tomography scans of all the patients who had been referred to the Radiology Department, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were employed to analyse the data. A total of 663 subjects aged ≥18 years were included in the present study. Overall prevalence of C1 arch anomalies was 4.37% with 4.07% of isolated posterior arch anomalies, 0.3% of combined anterior and posterior arch anomalies. Among isolated posterior arch anomalies, type A and type B posterior arch defects were found in 3.77% and 0.3% of cases, respectively. Atlanto-occipital assimilation was noted in one case of total study subjects. The prevalence rate of C1 arch anomalies is relatively high in Omani subjects. The baseline data of C1 arch anomalies reported in the present study has a great impact on clinical practice, due to the fact that studying and evaluating the types of congenital anomalies helps in their accurate diagnosis and early intervention.