Proteomics is the complete evaluation of the function and structure of proteins to understand an organism's nature. Mass spectrometry is an essential tool that is used for profiling proteins in the cell. However, biomarker discovery remains the major challenge of proteomics because of their complexity and dynamicity. Therefore, combining the proteomics approach with genomics and bioinformatics will provide an understanding of the information of biological systems and their disease alteration. However, most studies have investigated a small part of the proteins in the blood. This review highlights the types of proteomics, the available proteomic techniques, and their applications in different research fields.