Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease with special impact on the Middle East including Oman where it is significantly prevalent in Dhofar region. The disease has been reported in most species in the country but surveys and investigations are sporadic. The prevalence of the disease is of particular importance in goats, camels and sheep where higher rates have been reported. In humans, children constitute the most vulnerable sector of the population. The disease is prevalent in neighboring countries in a pattern similar to that in Oman, though some countries in the Middle-East show significantly higher rates. Available data reflect that Oman is at higher risk considering prevalence rates in bordering countries and other regions with higher prevalence. This issue is of special importance due to increasing international agro-economical trade and travel which may lead to a change in the pattern of brucellosis prevalence. A regional strategy would provide timely data and accurate information on prevalence and help in control measures. This review was intended to highlight the need for further investigations on the disease prevalence in view of future agricultural development plans.
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