Precipitating Factors for Hospitalization with Heart Failure: Prevalence and Clinical Impact Observations from the Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry)

Amar M. Salam, Kadhim Sulaiman, Alawi A. Alsheikh-Ali, Rajvir Singh, Khalid F. Alhabib, Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Nidal Asaad, Awad Al-Qahtani, Mohammed Al-Jarallah, Wael Almahmeed, Bassam Bulbanat, Mustafa Ridha, Nooshin Bazargani, Haitham Amin, Ahmed Al-Motarreb, Prashanth Panduranga, Husam Alfaleh, Abdulla Shehab, Jassim Al Suwaidi

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Objective: Despite the expanding burden of heart failure (HF) worldwide, data on HF precipitating factors (PFs) in developing countries, particularly the Middle East, are very limited. We examined PFs in patients hospitalized with acute HF in a prospective multicenter HF registry from 7 countries in the Middle East. Method: Data were derived from the Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry) for a prospective, multinational, multicenter study of consecutive patients hospitalized with HF in 47 hospitals in 7 Middle Eastern countries between February 2012 and November 2012. PFs were determined by the treating physician from a predefined list at the time of hospitalization. Results: The study included 5,005 patients hospitalized with acute HF, 2,276 of whom (45.5%) were hospitalized with acute new-onset HF (NOHF) and 2,729 of whom (54.5%) had acute decompensated chronic HF (DCHF). PFs were identified in 4,319 patients (86.3%). The most common PF in the NOHF group was acute coronary syndromes (ACS) (39.2%). In the DCHF group, it was noncompliance with medications (27.8%). Overall, noncompliance with medications was associated with a lower inhospital mortality (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.28-0.80; p = 0.005) but a higher 1-year mortality (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.1-1.85; p = 0.007). ACS was associated with higher inhospital mortality (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.26-2.68; p = 0.002) and higher 1-year mortality (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.27-2.06; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Preventive and therapeutic interventions specifically directed at noncompliance with medications and ACS are warranted in our region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)270-278
Number of pages9
JournalMedical Principles and Practice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Heart failure
  • Mortality
  • Precipitating factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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