Pore formation in apple during air-drying as a function of temperature: Porosity and pore-size distribution

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Abstract

Characteristics of air-dried apple produced by drying at 50, 80 and 105°C were studied by measuring apparent porosity, open pore porosity and pore-size distribution with a helium gas pycnometer and mercury porosimetry. Apparent porosity increased with the decrease of moisture content as well as with the increase of drying temperature. Fresh apple showed negligible closed pores, whereas drying caused collapse of surface pores, and consequently reduced open pores. Pore-size distribution for fresh apple showed two sharp peaks, one at 5.8 μm and another at 3.6 μm. Apple rings, dried for 20 h, showed only one sharp peak at 3.6 μm while samples dried for 30 h showed three peaks, at 10, 5.8 and 3.6 μm, respectively. Application of high pressure (0.12-414 MPa) resulted on negligible intrusion of mercury into the sample. Fractal analysis indicated the formation of more micro-pores on the surface caused by air-drying.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)979-989
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Volume85
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 30 2005

Fingerprint

Porosity
air drying
Malus
porosity
Pore size
Drying
apples
Air
Temperature
Mercury
mercury
temperature
pycnometers
drying
Fractals
Helium
helium
drying temperature
Moisture
Gases

Keywords

  • Air drying
  • Apple
  • Density
  • Fractal dimension
  • Hysteresis
  • Porosity
  • Shrinkage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)

Cite this

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title = "Pore formation in apple during air-drying as a function of temperature: Porosity and pore-size distribution",
abstract = "Characteristics of air-dried apple produced by drying at 50, 80 and 105°C were studied by measuring apparent porosity, open pore porosity and pore-size distribution with a helium gas pycnometer and mercury porosimetry. Apparent porosity increased with the decrease of moisture content as well as with the increase of drying temperature. Fresh apple showed negligible closed pores, whereas drying caused collapse of surface pores, and consequently reduced open pores. Pore-size distribution for fresh apple showed two sharp peaks, one at 5.8 μm and another at 3.6 μm. Apple rings, dried for 20 h, showed only one sharp peak at 3.6 μm while samples dried for 30 h showed three peaks, at 10, 5.8 and 3.6 μm, respectively. Application of high pressure (0.12-414 MPa) resulted on negligible intrusion of mercury into the sample. Fractal analysis indicated the formation of more micro-pores on the surface caused by air-drying.",
keywords = "Air drying, Apple, Density, Fractal dimension, Hysteresis, Porosity, Shrinkage",
author = "Rahman, {Mohammad Shafiur} and Intisar Al-Zakwani and Nejib Guizani",
year = "2005",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Pore formation in apple during air-drying as a function of temperature

T2 - Porosity and pore-size distribution

AU - Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur

AU - Al-Zakwani, Intisar

AU - Guizani, Nejib

PY - 2005/4/30

Y1 - 2005/4/30

N2 - Characteristics of air-dried apple produced by drying at 50, 80 and 105°C were studied by measuring apparent porosity, open pore porosity and pore-size distribution with a helium gas pycnometer and mercury porosimetry. Apparent porosity increased with the decrease of moisture content as well as with the increase of drying temperature. Fresh apple showed negligible closed pores, whereas drying caused collapse of surface pores, and consequently reduced open pores. Pore-size distribution for fresh apple showed two sharp peaks, one at 5.8 μm and another at 3.6 μm. Apple rings, dried for 20 h, showed only one sharp peak at 3.6 μm while samples dried for 30 h showed three peaks, at 10, 5.8 and 3.6 μm, respectively. Application of high pressure (0.12-414 MPa) resulted on negligible intrusion of mercury into the sample. Fractal analysis indicated the formation of more micro-pores on the surface caused by air-drying.

AB - Characteristics of air-dried apple produced by drying at 50, 80 and 105°C were studied by measuring apparent porosity, open pore porosity and pore-size distribution with a helium gas pycnometer and mercury porosimetry. Apparent porosity increased with the decrease of moisture content as well as with the increase of drying temperature. Fresh apple showed negligible closed pores, whereas drying caused collapse of surface pores, and consequently reduced open pores. Pore-size distribution for fresh apple showed two sharp peaks, one at 5.8 μm and another at 3.6 μm. Apple rings, dried for 20 h, showed only one sharp peak at 3.6 μm while samples dried for 30 h showed three peaks, at 10, 5.8 and 3.6 μm, respectively. Application of high pressure (0.12-414 MPa) resulted on negligible intrusion of mercury into the sample. Fractal analysis indicated the formation of more micro-pores on the surface caused by air-drying.

KW - Air drying

KW - Apple

KW - Density

KW - Fractal dimension

KW - Hysteresis

KW - Porosity

KW - Shrinkage

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