Periodontitis and Its Inflammatory Changes Linked to Various Systemic Diseases: A Review of Its Underlying Mechanisms

Ruchi Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar Bhuyan, Jatindra Nath Mohanty, Srijit Das*, Norsham Juliana, Izuddin Fahmy Abu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gums. The incidence of periodontitis is increasing all over the world. In patients with periodontitis, there is gradual destruction of the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone, and later, in advanced stages, there is tooth loss. Different microorganisms, the host’s immune response, and various environmental factors interact in the progression of this chronic inflammatory disease. In the present review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and complications of periodontitis. We also discuss the association of chronic inflammation found in periodontitis with various other systemic diseases, which include cardiovascular, respiratory, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, cancer, adverse pregnancy, and multiple myeloma, and also highlight microbial carcinogenesis and the microRNAs involved. The latest updates on the molecular mechanism, possible biomarkers, and treatment procedures may be beneficial for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2659
JournalBiomedicines
Volume10
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • infection
  • management
  • mechanisms
  • oral
  • pathology
  • periodontitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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