Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gums. The incidence of periodontitis is increasing all over the world. In patients with periodontitis, there is gradual destruction of the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone, and later, in advanced stages, there is tooth loss. Different microorganisms, the host's immune response, and various environmental factors interact in the progression of this chronic inflammatory disease. In the present review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and complications of periodontitis. We also discuss the association of chronic inflammation found in periodontitis with various other systemic diseases, which include cardiovascular, respiratory, diabetes, Alzheimer's, cancer, adverse pregnancy, and multiple myeloma, and also highlight microbial carcinogenesis and the microRNAs involved. The latest updates on the molecular mechanism, possible biomarkers, and treatment procedures may be beneficial for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.