Optimisation of smart water shock flooding in carbonates: Effect of soaking time

Mahmood Fani*, Peyman Pourafshary

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Smart water shock flooding (SWSF) is proposed as an alternative to the conventional method of employing low salinity water. It is confirmed that the asserted method is financially viable when compared to the conventional method. The effect of soaking time after SWSF was studied in order to mend the enactment of engineered slug shock injection. The depicted scheme provided enough time for the smart water to intensify the interaction at the surface of the formation rock; hence, it causes fluctuation in the wettability condition of the overall process. Contact angle measurements were used, in addition to pH evaluations, to detect an optimum soaking time for the flooding. Experiments showed that soaking the sample in the smart water during core flooding experiments leads to drastically higher incremental recovery, compared to the conventional injection scheme. Hence, the proposed method can inexpensively improve oil recovery by combining the effects of soaking and SWSF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)459-478
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Conventional oil reserves
  • Enhanced oil recovery
  • Low salinity water flooding
  • Optimisation
  • Petrochemistry
  • Smart water
  • Smart water shock flooding
  • Surface chemistry
  • Unconventional oil reserves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy(all)


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