One-pot electrochemical gram-scale synthesis of graphene using deep eutectic solvents and acetonitrile

M. H. Chakrabarti, N. S A Manan, N. P. Brandon, R. C. Maher, F. S. Mjalli, I. M. AlNashef, S. A. Hajimolana, M. A. Hashim, M. A. Hussain, D. Nir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Interest in the exfoliation of graphite to prepare few layer graphene (FLG) has seen significant growth. The electrochemical procedure has, unfortunately, remained rather elusive to scaling-up options. This work builds on recent results of employing acetonitrile (ACN) as a solvent for reducing the amount of expensive ionic liquids (ILs) used as electrolytes. In order to move towards a more environmentally friendly synthesis route, the yield and energy consumption of graphene exfoliation using the four main types of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been investigated. Best performance, in terms of the highest specific yield (graphene weight per unit energy consumed) of 0.307g/kJ, is observed when Type IV DES is employed as the electrolyte in ACN. Similar results, but with less specific yield, is observed when Type I DES is used (other DESs and the IL, BMPyrrBTA, did not provide high yields of graphene but produced more carbonaceous particles and rolled sheets instead). The physicochemical properties of the DESs also confirm that the best DES for exfoliation is the Type IV variant, which needs further investigation. The quality of graphene produced is excellent (4-5 layers, 80% transparency, specific surface area of 180m2/g, conductivity of 2.1×105S/m and a contact angle of 94° thereby displaying hydrophobicity) and comparable to most graphene produced via other means. While maintaining high quality, the application of ACN and DES is economically attractive compared to other methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-223
Number of pages11
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Volume274
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 5 2015

Fingerprint

Graphite
Acetonitrile
Eutectics
Graphene
Ionic Liquids
Ionic liquids
electrolyte
Electrolytes
acetonitrile
hydrophobicity
physicochemical property
Hydrophobicity
Specific surface area
transparency
graphite
Transparency
Contact angle
Energy utilization
conductivity
surface area

Keywords

  • Acetonitrile
  • Deep eutectic solvents
  • Electrochemical exfoliation
  • Gram-scale
  • Graphene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry

Cite this

One-pot electrochemical gram-scale synthesis of graphene using deep eutectic solvents and acetonitrile. / Chakrabarti, M. H.; Manan, N. S A; Brandon, N. P.; Maher, R. C.; Mjalli, F. S.; AlNashef, I. M.; Hajimolana, S. A.; Hashim, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Nir, D.

In: Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 274, 05.08.2015, p. 213-223.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chakrabarti, MH, Manan, NSA, Brandon, NP, Maher, RC, Mjalli, FS, AlNashef, IM, Hajimolana, SA, Hashim, MA, Hussain, MA & Nir, D 2015, 'One-pot electrochemical gram-scale synthesis of graphene using deep eutectic solvents and acetonitrile', Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 274, pp. 213-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2015.03.083
Chakrabarti, M. H. ; Manan, N. S A ; Brandon, N. P. ; Maher, R. C. ; Mjalli, F. S. ; AlNashef, I. M. ; Hajimolana, S. A. ; Hashim, M. A. ; Hussain, M. A. ; Nir, D. / One-pot electrochemical gram-scale synthesis of graphene using deep eutectic solvents and acetonitrile. In: Chemical Engineering Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 274. pp. 213-223.
@article{10f896af16e2480bbf51c37e8b60dae0,
title = "One-pot electrochemical gram-scale synthesis of graphene using deep eutectic solvents and acetonitrile",
abstract = "Interest in the exfoliation of graphite to prepare few layer graphene (FLG) has seen significant growth. The electrochemical procedure has, unfortunately, remained rather elusive to scaling-up options. This work builds on recent results of employing acetonitrile (ACN) as a solvent for reducing the amount of expensive ionic liquids (ILs) used as electrolytes. In order to move towards a more environmentally friendly synthesis route, the yield and energy consumption of graphene exfoliation using the four main types of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been investigated. Best performance, in terms of the highest specific yield (graphene weight per unit energy consumed) of 0.307g/kJ, is observed when Type IV DES is employed as the electrolyte in ACN. Similar results, but with less specific yield, is observed when Type I DES is used (other DESs and the IL, BMPyrrBTA, did not provide high yields of graphene but produced more carbonaceous particles and rolled sheets instead). The physicochemical properties of the DESs also confirm that the best DES for exfoliation is the Type IV variant, which needs further investigation. The quality of graphene produced is excellent (4-5 layers, 80{\%} transparency, specific surface area of 180m2/g, conductivity of 2.1×105S/m and a contact angle of 94° thereby displaying hydrophobicity) and comparable to most graphene produced via other means. While maintaining high quality, the application of ACN and DES is economically attractive compared to other methods.",
keywords = "Acetonitrile, Deep eutectic solvents, Electrochemical exfoliation, Gram-scale, Graphene",
author = "Chakrabarti, {M. H.} and Manan, {N. S A} and Brandon, {N. P.} and Maher, {R. C.} and Mjalli, {F. S.} and AlNashef, {I. M.} and Hajimolana, {S. A.} and Hashim, {M. A.} and Hussain, {M. A.} and D. Nir",
year = "2015",
month = "8",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.cej.2015.03.083",
language = "English",
volume = "274",
pages = "213--223",
journal = "Chemical Engineering Journal",
issn = "1385-8947",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - One-pot electrochemical gram-scale synthesis of graphene using deep eutectic solvents and acetonitrile

AU - Chakrabarti, M. H.

AU - Manan, N. S A

AU - Brandon, N. P.

AU - Maher, R. C.

AU - Mjalli, F. S.

AU - AlNashef, I. M.

AU - Hajimolana, S. A.

AU - Hashim, M. A.

AU - Hussain, M. A.

AU - Nir, D.

PY - 2015/8/5

Y1 - 2015/8/5

N2 - Interest in the exfoliation of graphite to prepare few layer graphene (FLG) has seen significant growth. The electrochemical procedure has, unfortunately, remained rather elusive to scaling-up options. This work builds on recent results of employing acetonitrile (ACN) as a solvent for reducing the amount of expensive ionic liquids (ILs) used as electrolytes. In order to move towards a more environmentally friendly synthesis route, the yield and energy consumption of graphene exfoliation using the four main types of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been investigated. Best performance, in terms of the highest specific yield (graphene weight per unit energy consumed) of 0.307g/kJ, is observed when Type IV DES is employed as the electrolyte in ACN. Similar results, but with less specific yield, is observed when Type I DES is used (other DESs and the IL, BMPyrrBTA, did not provide high yields of graphene but produced more carbonaceous particles and rolled sheets instead). The physicochemical properties of the DESs also confirm that the best DES for exfoliation is the Type IV variant, which needs further investigation. The quality of graphene produced is excellent (4-5 layers, 80% transparency, specific surface area of 180m2/g, conductivity of 2.1×105S/m and a contact angle of 94° thereby displaying hydrophobicity) and comparable to most graphene produced via other means. While maintaining high quality, the application of ACN and DES is economically attractive compared to other methods.

AB - Interest in the exfoliation of graphite to prepare few layer graphene (FLG) has seen significant growth. The electrochemical procedure has, unfortunately, remained rather elusive to scaling-up options. This work builds on recent results of employing acetonitrile (ACN) as a solvent for reducing the amount of expensive ionic liquids (ILs) used as electrolytes. In order to move towards a more environmentally friendly synthesis route, the yield and energy consumption of graphene exfoliation using the four main types of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been investigated. Best performance, in terms of the highest specific yield (graphene weight per unit energy consumed) of 0.307g/kJ, is observed when Type IV DES is employed as the electrolyte in ACN. Similar results, but with less specific yield, is observed when Type I DES is used (other DESs and the IL, BMPyrrBTA, did not provide high yields of graphene but produced more carbonaceous particles and rolled sheets instead). The physicochemical properties of the DESs also confirm that the best DES for exfoliation is the Type IV variant, which needs further investigation. The quality of graphene produced is excellent (4-5 layers, 80% transparency, specific surface area of 180m2/g, conductivity of 2.1×105S/m and a contact angle of 94° thereby displaying hydrophobicity) and comparable to most graphene produced via other means. While maintaining high quality, the application of ACN and DES is economically attractive compared to other methods.

KW - Acetonitrile

KW - Deep eutectic solvents

KW - Electrochemical exfoliation

KW - Gram-scale

KW - Graphene

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84927759375&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84927759375&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.cej.2015.03.083

DO - 10.1016/j.cej.2015.03.083

M3 - Article

VL - 274

SP - 213

EP - 223

JO - Chemical Engineering Journal

JF - Chemical Engineering Journal

SN - 1385-8947

ER -