Numerical Simulations of Hydromagnetic Mixed Convection Flow of Nanofluids inside a Triangular Cavity on the Basis of a Two-Component Nonhomogeneous Mathematical Model

Khadija A. Al-Hassani, M. S. Alam, M. M. Rahman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Nanofluids have enjoyed a widespread use in many technological applications due to their peculiar properties. Numerical simulations are presented about the unsteady behavior of mixed convection of Fe3O4-water, Fe3O4-kerosene, Fe3O4-ethylene glycol, and Fe3O4-engine oil nanofluids inside a lid-driven triangular cavity. In particular, a two-component non-homogeneous nanofluid model is used. The bottom wall of the enclosure is insulated, whereas the inclined wall is kept a constant (cold) temperature and various temperature laws are assumed for the vertical wall, namely: θ = 1(Case 1), θ = Y(1 - Y) (Case 2), and θ = sin(2πY)(Case 3). A tilted magnetic field of uniform strength is also present in the fluid domain. From a numerical point of view, the problem is addressed using the Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. The role played by different parameters is assessed, discussed critically and interpreted from a physical standpoint. We find that a higher aspect ratio can produce an increase in the average Nusselt number. Moreover, the Fe3O4-EO and Fe3O4-H2O nanofluids provide the highest and smallest rate of heat transfer, respectively, for all the considered (three variants of) thermal boundary conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalFluid Dynamics and Materials Processing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • finite element method
  • lid-driven
  • mixed convection
  • Nanofluid
  • triangular cavity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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