Multiple Myeloma: Challenges Encountered and Future Options for Better Treatment

Srijit Das, Norsham Juliana, Noor Anisah Abu Yazit, Sahar Azmani, Izuddin Fahmy Abu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant hematological disease. The disease is characterized by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. MM accounts for 1.3% of all malignancies and has been increasing in incidence all over the world. Various genetic abnormalities, mutations, and translocation, including epigenetic modifications, are known to contribute to the disease's pathophysiology. The prognosis is good if detected early, or else the outcome is very bad if distant metastasis has already occurred. Conventional treatment with drugs poses a challenge when there is drug resistance. In the present review, we discuss multiple myeloma and its treatment, drug resistance, the molecular basis of epigenetic regulation, the role of natural products in epigenetic regulators, diet, physical activity, addiction, and environmental pollutants, which may be beneficial for clinicians and researchers.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 31 2022


  • Biological Products/pharmacology
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects
  • Epigenesis, Genetic/drug effects
  • Humans
  • Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
  • Mutation
  • Prognosis
  • Translocation, Genetic
  • Tumor Microenvironment/drug effects


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