Multiple Myeloma: Challenges Encountered and Future Options for Better Treatment

Srijit Das, Norsham Juliana*, Noor Anisah Abu Yazit, Sahar Azmani, Izuddin Fahmy Abu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant hematological disease. The disease is character-ized by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. MM accounts for 1.3% of all malignancies and has been increasing in incidence all over the world. Various genetic abnormalities, mutations, and translocation, including epigenetic modifications, are known to con-tribute to the disease’s pathophysiology. The prognosis is good if detected early, or else the outcome is very bad if distant metastasis has already occurred. Conventional treatment with drugs poses a challenge when there is drug resistance. In the present review, we discuss multiple myeloma and its treatment, drug resistance, the molecular basis of epigenetic regulation, the role of natural products in epigenetic regulators, diet, physical activity, addiction, and environmental pollutants, which may be beneficial for clinicians and researchers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1649
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume23
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2022

Keywords

  • Drug resistance
  • Epigenetic
  • Management
  • Modifications
  • Multiple myeloma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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