Mobile phone electromagnetic waves causing fatty change in the hepatocytes of the developing chick embryo: Are smart phones too close for comfort?

Najam Siddiqi, Thomas Heming, Asem Shalaby, Mohammad Al Kindi, Fatima Al Ghafri, Raheel Younas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This study was conducted to measure the electromagnetic waves (RFW) emitted by different mobile phones and to further examine the effects of these waves on the living cells. TriField meter Model 100XE was used to measure the electromagnetic waves (mW/cm2) emitted by different mobile phones while receiving a call. To explore the effects of electromagnetic waves on living cells, developing chick embryo was selected for this study. 40 chick fertilized eggs were equally divided into a control and an exposed group. 20 fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone (SAR US: 1.10W/kg (head) 0.47 W/kg body) in silent mode having vibration disable mode. Mobile was called for total of 50 minutes in 24 hours. 20 embryos each were sacrificed at day 10 and 15, and histology of liver was conducted. The control group, 20 eggs were incubated in the sameconditions, having removed the battery from the phone. The TriField readings from different mobile phones were classified into four groups according to the strength of the waves. Downloading from the net using WiFi also revealed high intensity of the waves. Histology of the liver: Control group at day 10, showed developing hepatocytes, row not well formed, and few sinusoids in-between with few scattered RBSs. At day 15, well-formed anastomosing cords of hepatocytes with prominent nucleus were observed and well-formed sinusoids lined by epithelium showing well-formed RBCs can be seen clearly. In the exposed group at day 10, the sinusoids were less visible and necrosis of hepatocytes was seen. At day 15, in all the embryos, hepatocytes showed marked infiltration of fatty vacuoles in their cytoplasm, necrosis of few hepatocytes showing deeply stained nucleus, derangement of rows forming classic hepatic lobule, absence of sinusoids and few scattered RBSs. Different mobile phones showed emission of electromagnetic waves whose intensity was high in the old version of mobile phones. These waves affected the development of liver in the chick embryo; hepatocytes revealed fatty change and derangement of sinusoids in the exposed group. This study concludes that the electromagnetic waves of the mobile phones affected the proliferation of living cells in chick embryo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1139-1147
Number of pages9
JournalBiomedical and Pharmacology Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2017



  • Chick embryo
  • Electromagnetic waves
  • Fatty change
  • Liver
  • Mobile phone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

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