Mobile Learning (M-Learning) adoption in the Middle East: Lessons learned from the educationally advanced countries

Asharul Islam Khan*, Hafedh Al-Shihi, Zuhoor Abdullah Al-Khanjari, Mohamed Sarrab

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Citations (SciVal)


The integration of mobile devices in the educational system presents enormous opportunities stretching from improved efficiency to accessibility of education to communities living in remote areas. The last decade has seen emergence of a new economy called Knowledge Economy, a fusion of globalization and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Educationally advanced countries such as South Korea, USA, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, European Union and Australia are using mobile devices in the educational sectors. These countries have been found promoting Mobile Learning (M-Learning) as a matter of national policies. They have accommodated E-Learning and M-Learning in their traditional learning systems. However most of the Middle East countries are still out of race and facing number of challenges in M-Learning adoption. A critical review of educationally advanced countries suggests that adoption of M-Learning is influenced by country specific as well as individual constraints. As a consequence five important lessons have been drawn from these countries, national level initiatives, public and private partnership, characteristics of learners and cultural norms, M-Learning infrastructure, and awareness. This paper is intended to help policymakers of the educationally less advanced countries to overcome the challenges of M-Learning, following the footsteps of educationally advanced countries. The review concludes with the discussion of five lessons in the context of the Middle East, assigning priority the most important being the national level objective, followed by M-Learning awareness, partnership between public and private entities. Also learners' characteristics and cultural norms, M-Learning infrastructure, policymakers must evaluate when making decisions about M-Learning adoption.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)909-920
Number of pages12
JournalTelematics and Informatics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 25 2015


  • Adoption factors
  • Educationally advanced countries
  • Lessons learned
  • M-Learning
  • M-Learning adoption
  • M-Learning policies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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