Background: Patients with intellectual disability syndromes frequently have coexisting abnormalities of ocular structures and the visual pathway system. The microphthalmos, anophthalmos, and coloboma (MAC) spectrum represent structural developmental eye defects that occur as part of a syndrome in one-third of cases. Ophthalmic examination may provide important diagnostic clues in identifying these syndromes. Purpose: To provide a detailed and comprehensive description of the microphthalmos, anophthalmos, and coloboma (MAC) spectrum in two brothers with intellectual disability and dysmorphism. Methods: The two brothers underwent a detailed ophthalmic and systemic evaluation. A family pedigree was obtained and exome sequencing was performed in the proband. Results: The two brothers aged 4 and 7 years had intellectual disability, microcephaly, short stature, and characteristic dysmorphic features. Ophthalmic evaluation revealed the presence of the MAC spectrum in both boys. Genetic testing led to the detection of an X-linked hemizygous truncating mutation in the nuclear polyglutamine-binding protein 1 (PQBP1) gene confirming the diagnosis of X-linked recessive Renpenning syndrome. Conclusion: The presence of X-linked intellectual disability and characteristic dysmorphism, in a patient with the MAC spectrum should raise the suspicion of Renpenning syndrome. PQBP1 mutation testing is confirmatory. A comprehensive systemic evaluation is mandatory in all patients with the MAC spectrum and intellectual disability.
- intellectual disability
- microphthalmos-anophthalmos-coloboma (MAC)
- polyglutamine-binding protein 1 (PQBP1) gene
- Renpenning syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health