This study compares the performances of students with typical hearing, students who are deaf and hard of hearing, students with typical hearing who were low-achieving, and students with typical hearing who were institutionally raised by testing with a newly constructed tool of metacognition that also measured reaction time. Results revealed no significant differences between students with typical hearing and students who are deaf and hard of hearing in scores on the instrument and in reaction time. The performance of these two groups of students was significantly better in obtaining correct scores and in having less reaction time compared to performances of students who were institutionally raised and low-achieving. The performance of institutionalized students did not differ significantly from that of low-achieving students in obtaining correct scores, but the institutionalized students' reaction time was significantly longer. When time was used as a factor in determining students' correct responses, the performance of institutionally raised and low-achieving students was disadvantaged when compared with that of students with typical hearing and students who are deaf and hard of hearing.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cultural Studies
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)