Long-term durability of bicuspid aortic valve repair

Lars G. Svensson, Adil H. Al Kindi, Alessandro Vivacqua, Gösta B. Pettersson, A. Marc Gillinov, Tomislav Mihaljevic, Eric E. Roselli, Joseph F. Sabik, Brian Griffin, Donald F. Hammer, Leonardo Rodriguez, Sarah J. Williams, Eugene H. Blackstone, Bruce W. Lytle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac malformation, occurring in 1% to 2% of the population. Eventually, 20% develop clinically important valvar regurgitation requiring surgical intervention. Aortic valve repair avoids anticoagulation and prosthetic valve-related complications. This study evaluated long-term durability of BAV repair. Methods From 1985 to 2011, 728 patients, mean age 42 ± 12 years, underwent BAV repair at Cleveland Clinic. Mean follow-up was 9.0 ± 6.2 years (median, 8.3). Factors associated with repair durability (expressed as aortic valve reoperations and echocardiographically estimated gradients and regurgitation) and survival were identified. Results Hospital mortality was 0.41% (n = 3), and stroke occurred in 0.27% (n = 2). Freedom from aortic valve reoperation at 10 years was 78%. Risk of reoperation was highest immediately after operation and fell rapidly to approximately 2.6%/year up to 15 years. Primary reasons for reoperation were cusp prolapse (38%), aortic stenosis or regurgitation (17%), and aortic regurgitation from root aneurysm (15%). Aortic valve gradients showed an early initial peak, rapidly declined, then rose steadily, accompanied by an increase in left ventricular mass. Survival was 94% at 10 years. A risk factor for early death was greater preoperative mitral valve regurgitation, and for late death, older age at operation, more severe symptoms, and poorer left ventricular function. Conclusions BAV repair is safe and durable with low mortality, low prevalence of reoperation, and good long-term survival. Cusp prolapse from technical errors and natural progression of disease are the most common causes for reoperation, but progressive natural increase in valve gradient accounts for a substantial proportion as well.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1539-1548
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Volume97
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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Reoperation
Aortic Valve
Aortic Valve Insufficiency
Prolapse
Survival
Population Growth
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Hospital Mortality
Left Ventricular Function
Aneurysm
Disease Progression
Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Stroke
Mortality
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Cite this

Svensson, L. G., Al Kindi, A. H., Vivacqua, A., Pettersson, G. B., Gillinov, A. M., Mihaljevic, T., ... Lytle, B. W. (2014). Long-term durability of bicuspid aortic valve repair. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 97(5), 1539-1548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.11.036

Long-term durability of bicuspid aortic valve repair. / Svensson, Lars G.; Al Kindi, Adil H.; Vivacqua, Alessandro; Pettersson, Gösta B.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Roselli, Eric E.; Sabik, Joseph F.; Griffin, Brian; Hammer, Donald F.; Rodriguez, Leonardo; Williams, Sarah J.; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Lytle, Bruce W.

In: Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 97, No. 5, 2014, p. 1539-1548.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Svensson, LG, Al Kindi, AH, Vivacqua, A, Pettersson, GB, Gillinov, AM, Mihaljevic, T, Roselli, EE, Sabik, JF, Griffin, B, Hammer, DF, Rodriguez, L, Williams, SJ, Blackstone, EH & Lytle, BW 2014, 'Long-term durability of bicuspid aortic valve repair', Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 1539-1548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.11.036
Svensson LG, Al Kindi AH, Vivacqua A, Pettersson GB, Gillinov AM, Mihaljevic T et al. Long-term durability of bicuspid aortic valve repair. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2014;97(5):1539-1548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.11.036
Svensson, Lars G. ; Al Kindi, Adil H. ; Vivacqua, Alessandro ; Pettersson, Gösta B. ; Gillinov, A. Marc ; Mihaljevic, Tomislav ; Roselli, Eric E. ; Sabik, Joseph F. ; Griffin, Brian ; Hammer, Donald F. ; Rodriguez, Leonardo ; Williams, Sarah J. ; Blackstone, Eugene H. ; Lytle, Bruce W. / Long-term durability of bicuspid aortic valve repair. In: Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2014 ; Vol. 97, No. 5. pp. 1539-1548.
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abstract = "Background Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac malformation, occurring in 1{\%} to 2{\%} of the population. Eventually, 20{\%} develop clinically important valvar regurgitation requiring surgical intervention. Aortic valve repair avoids anticoagulation and prosthetic valve-related complications. This study evaluated long-term durability of BAV repair. Methods From 1985 to 2011, 728 patients, mean age 42 ± 12 years, underwent BAV repair at Cleveland Clinic. Mean follow-up was 9.0 ± 6.2 years (median, 8.3). Factors associated with repair durability (expressed as aortic valve reoperations and echocardiographically estimated gradients and regurgitation) and survival were identified. Results Hospital mortality was 0.41{\%} (n = 3), and stroke occurred in 0.27{\%} (n = 2). Freedom from aortic valve reoperation at 10 years was 78{\%}. Risk of reoperation was highest immediately after operation and fell rapidly to approximately 2.6{\%}/year up to 15 years. Primary reasons for reoperation were cusp prolapse (38{\%}), aortic stenosis or regurgitation (17{\%}), and aortic regurgitation from root aneurysm (15{\%}). Aortic valve gradients showed an early initial peak, rapidly declined, then rose steadily, accompanied by an increase in left ventricular mass. Survival was 94{\%} at 10 years. A risk factor for early death was greater preoperative mitral valve regurgitation, and for late death, older age at operation, more severe symptoms, and poorer left ventricular function. Conclusions BAV repair is safe and durable with low mortality, low prevalence of reoperation, and good long-term survival. Cusp prolapse from technical errors and natural progression of disease are the most common causes for reoperation, but progressive natural increase in valve gradient accounts for a substantial proportion as well.",
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T1 - Long-term durability of bicuspid aortic valve repair

AU - Svensson, Lars G.

AU - Al Kindi, Adil H.

AU - Vivacqua, Alessandro

AU - Pettersson, Gösta B.

AU - Gillinov, A. Marc

AU - Mihaljevic, Tomislav

AU - Roselli, Eric E.

AU - Sabik, Joseph F.

AU - Griffin, Brian

AU - Hammer, Donald F.

AU - Rodriguez, Leonardo

AU - Williams, Sarah J.

AU - Blackstone, Eugene H.

AU - Lytle, Bruce W.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Background Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac malformation, occurring in 1% to 2% of the population. Eventually, 20% develop clinically important valvar regurgitation requiring surgical intervention. Aortic valve repair avoids anticoagulation and prosthetic valve-related complications. This study evaluated long-term durability of BAV repair. Methods From 1985 to 2011, 728 patients, mean age 42 ± 12 years, underwent BAV repair at Cleveland Clinic. Mean follow-up was 9.0 ± 6.2 years (median, 8.3). Factors associated with repair durability (expressed as aortic valve reoperations and echocardiographically estimated gradients and regurgitation) and survival were identified. Results Hospital mortality was 0.41% (n = 3), and stroke occurred in 0.27% (n = 2). Freedom from aortic valve reoperation at 10 years was 78%. Risk of reoperation was highest immediately after operation and fell rapidly to approximately 2.6%/year up to 15 years. Primary reasons for reoperation were cusp prolapse (38%), aortic stenosis or regurgitation (17%), and aortic regurgitation from root aneurysm (15%). Aortic valve gradients showed an early initial peak, rapidly declined, then rose steadily, accompanied by an increase in left ventricular mass. Survival was 94% at 10 years. A risk factor for early death was greater preoperative mitral valve regurgitation, and for late death, older age at operation, more severe symptoms, and poorer left ventricular function. Conclusions BAV repair is safe and durable with low mortality, low prevalence of reoperation, and good long-term survival. Cusp prolapse from technical errors and natural progression of disease are the most common causes for reoperation, but progressive natural increase in valve gradient accounts for a substantial proportion as well.

AB - Background Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac malformation, occurring in 1% to 2% of the population. Eventually, 20% develop clinically important valvar regurgitation requiring surgical intervention. Aortic valve repair avoids anticoagulation and prosthetic valve-related complications. This study evaluated long-term durability of BAV repair. Methods From 1985 to 2011, 728 patients, mean age 42 ± 12 years, underwent BAV repair at Cleveland Clinic. Mean follow-up was 9.0 ± 6.2 years (median, 8.3). Factors associated with repair durability (expressed as aortic valve reoperations and echocardiographically estimated gradients and regurgitation) and survival were identified. Results Hospital mortality was 0.41% (n = 3), and stroke occurred in 0.27% (n = 2). Freedom from aortic valve reoperation at 10 years was 78%. Risk of reoperation was highest immediately after operation and fell rapidly to approximately 2.6%/year up to 15 years. Primary reasons for reoperation were cusp prolapse (38%), aortic stenosis or regurgitation (17%), and aortic regurgitation from root aneurysm (15%). Aortic valve gradients showed an early initial peak, rapidly declined, then rose steadily, accompanied by an increase in left ventricular mass. Survival was 94% at 10 years. A risk factor for early death was greater preoperative mitral valve regurgitation, and for late death, older age at operation, more severe symptoms, and poorer left ventricular function. Conclusions BAV repair is safe and durable with low mortality, low prevalence of reoperation, and good long-term survival. Cusp prolapse from technical errors and natural progression of disease are the most common causes for reoperation, but progressive natural increase in valve gradient accounts for a substantial proportion as well.

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