Kinetic and Kinematic Analysis of Landing during Standing Back Somersault Using Three Technical Arm Swings in Artistic Gymnastics

Samiha Amara Ep Makaouer, bessem mkaouer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The crucial criteria when assessing technical performance in artistic gymnastics is the
higher elevation of the gymnast’s body and a stable landing (i.e., stick-landing). The purpose of this
study was to compare kinetic and kinematic parameters during the landing phase of standing back
somersaults (SBS) following three technical arm-swing performed during the preparatory phase in
high-level male gymnasts. The three different arm-swing pertain to three “gymnastics schools”, i.e.,
Russian, Chinese, and Romanian. Six high-level male gymnasts participated in this study. Three
arm-swing with different angles (i.e., SBS270°, SBS180°, and SBS90°) were randomly performed. A 3D
kinetic and kinematic analysis was conducted. Results showed significant variation in the landing
angle (p = 0.009) across the three arm-swing techniques. The SBS90° arm-swing resulted in the closest
angle to the vertical. Additionally, the SBS90° arm-swing technique induced the lowest horizontal
and vertical force values upon landing compared to the other arm-swing techniques (SBS270°: p =
0.023 and 0.009, respectively; SBS180°: p = 0.004 and 0.080, respectively). The same was noted for the
horizontal velocity (p = 0.021) with the lowest values noted for the SBS90° arm-swing technique.
However, the best opening angle was observed during the SBS270° technique, since it presented the
best vertical displacement. In conclusion, the SBS with a SBS90° arm-swing seems to favor a better
absorption of the ground reaction force upon landing by reducing the intensity of the impact with
the ground and by affording a landing angle closer to the vertical in high-level male gymnasts.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
Issue number8(1)
Publication statusPublished - Jan 13 2023


  • motion analysis; acrobatics; preparatory phase; landing; stability

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