Investigating municipal wastewater treatment in the sultanate of Oman

M. S. Baawain, A. M. Al-Futaisi, A. Al-Omairi, M. Al-Jabri

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)


Municipal wastewater is the water generated from domestic, commercial, and public sources. This water can be viewed as the only potential water source that will increase as population grows. The importance of wastewater as a potential source of water is apparent in countries that suffer from shortage of water. However, it must be treated properly before reuse and/or disposal due to the need for controlling many parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), solids, heavy metals, anions and microbial content. The aim of this study is to investigate municipal wastewater treatment in the Sultanate of Oman by analyzing wastewater samples collected from different treatment plants in three regions of the country (Muscat, Salalah, and Sohar). Comprehensive analyses including physical, chemical and biological characterization of raw wastewater and final effluents were conducted by collecting samples from major treatment units within the studied treatment plants. Consequently, comprehensive database was established for the raw municipal wastewater quality in the three regions and the performance of the treatment plants over 12 months. The levels of constituents in the final effluents from the treatment plants in the three regions were compared with Omani standards to evaluate their suitability for the current (e.g. landscape irrigation and groundwater recharge) and/or alternative (e.g. cooling and processing water) applications. Better aeration, oxidation, adsorption and disinfection technologies were recommended to improve the quality some of studied treatment plants final effluents.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWater Resources Management VI
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)9781845645144
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Event6th International Conference on Sustainable Water Resources Management, WRM 2011 - Riverside, CA, United States
Duration: May 23 2011May 25 2011


Other6th International Conference on Sustainable Water Resources Management, WRM 2011
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityRiverside, CA


  • Chemical characterization
  • Oman
  • Physical and biological characterization
  • Wastewater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)


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