Influence of seed size on the growth, productivity, and water use efficiency of bread wheat planted by different methods

Muhammad Mahmood Iqbal, Imran Khan, Muhammad Sanaullah, Muhammad Farooq*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In this two-year field study, influence of seed size on the growth and performance of wheat sown under different sowing methods was evaluated. The experiment comprised of three seed size classes viz. bold size, medium size and small size and five sowing methods, (1) broadcast, (2) line sowing, (3) no-till sowing, (4) bed planting, and (5) broadcast augmented with furrows. Among sowing methods highest yield (4.59 and 4.40 t ha−1) and water productivity (2.02 and 1.92 kg m−3) were recorded in bed planting. During both years, yield of bed planted wheat was significantly higher (5–29%) compared with other sowing methods. However, less cost of production in no-till sowing resulted in higher resource use efficiency (0.91, 0.73) than other wheat planting methods. Among seed size classes, the crop raised from bold seeds performed better for weed competitiveness, nutrient uptake, and resource use efficiency (0.79 and 0.63). The yield of crop raised from bold seeds was the best in all sowing methods except in broadcast where medium sized seeds performed better for yield (4.19, 4.35 t ha−1), nutrient uptake and resource use efficiency (0.73, 0.63). Therefore, planting bold wheat seeds on beds may help harvest better productivity and profitability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)354-370
Number of pages17
JournalArchives of Agronomy and Soil Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • nutrient uptake
  • resource use efficiency
  • Seed size
  • water productivity
  • weed competitiveness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science

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