Induction of early blight resistance in tomato by Quercus infectoria gall extract in association with accumulation of phenolics and defense-related enzymes

K. Yamunarani, R. Jaganathan, R. Bhaskaran, P. Govindaraju, R. Velazhahan

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Treatment of tomato leaves with aqueous extract (0.5%) of the galls of Quercus infectoria significantly reduced infection from subsequent inoculation with Alternaria solani, the tomato early blight pathogen. When the leaves were challenge-inoculated with A. solani 3 d after application of Q. infectoria gall extract (QIGE), the percent defoliation decreased from 33.6 to 7.3. Two to three day pre-treatment with QIGE reduced the percent defoliation by 77 percent. The biochemical responses of tomato plants to QIGE were also studied. In tomato plants treated with QIGE, phenolic content increased rapidly, reached the maximum at 2 d after treatment. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity increased significantly from 1 d after treatment and the maximum enzyme activity was recorded 2 d after treatment at which period a 3-fold increase in PAL activity was observed when compared to the control. Peroxidase (PO) activity was also significantly increased 1 d after treatment and the maximum activity was reached 2 d after treatment. Peroxidase isozyme analysis indicated that PO-1 was increased dramatically in tomato leaves 1 d after treatment and maintained at the same level throughout the experimental period of 6 d. When tomato leaves were treated with QIGE, a two-fold increase in chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities was recorded 2 and 3 d respectively, after treatment. The enhanced activities of defense-related enzymes and elevated levels of phenolics in QIGE-treated tomato plants between 1 and 3 d after treatment suggest that these induced biochemical defenses may be involved in the suppression of early blight by QIGE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)281-290
Number of pages10
JournalActa Physiologiae Plantarum
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2004



  • β-1,3-glucanase
  • Alternaria solani
  • Chitinase
  • Early blight
  • Lycopersicon esculentum
  • Peroxidase
  • Phenols
  • Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
  • Tomato

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science

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