A study was conducted to analyze fungal diversity in the roots of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia) collected from Oman, a semi-arid country located in the South Eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. MiSeq analysis showed the Ascomycota and Sordariomycetes were the most abundant phylum and class in acid lime roots, respectively. Glomeromycota, Basidiomycota and Microsporidia were the other fungal phyla, while Glomeromycetes and some other classes belonging to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were detected at lower frequencies. The genus Fusarium was the most abundant in all samples, making up 46 to 95% of the total reads. Some fungal genera of Arbuscular mycorrhizae and nematophagous fungi were detected in some of the acid lime roots. Analysis of the level of fungal diversity showed that no significant differences exist among groups of root samples (from different locations) in their Chao richness and Shannon diversity levels (P < 0.05). Principle component analysis of fungal communities significantly separated samples according to their locations. This is the first study to evaluate fungal diversity in acid lime roots using high throughput sequencing analysis. The study reveals the presence of various fungal taxa in the roots, dominated by Fusarium species and including some mycorrhizae and nematophagous fungi.
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