High-Solid Loading Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Waste Office Paper for poly-3-hydroxybutyrate Production Through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation

Huda Al-Battashi, Nallusamy Sivakumar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Waste paper holds great potential as a substrate for the microbial production of bioplastic (Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)). This study aimed to produce PHB by utilizing office paper as a substrate using Cupriavidus necator through batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) approach. For the batch experiment, different loadings of shredded office paper (3, 5 and 10%) with two different pretreatments H2O2 (OPH) and H2O2 and Triton X-100 (OPTH) were carried out. For the fed-batch experiment, paper loading started with 3% and two more additions were made at 36 and 84 h. Both experiments were conducted at 30 °C, 200 rpm and pH 7 using 55.5 FPU/g of cellulase and 37.5 CBU/g of β-glucosidase with a fixed amount of nitrogen source. High PHB yield was observed with OPH in all loadings, though the OPHT showed a better hydrolysis. Maximum PHB yield (4.27 g/L) was achieved with 10% OP on the sixth day of fermentation in batch SSF. Whereas, maximum PHB yield (4.19 g/L) was obtained within a shorter time (66 h)with OPH in the fed-batch experiment. The extracted PHB showed well-matched characteristic features to the standard PHB. Finally, this study proves the feasibility of employing the SSF process for PHB production using waste paper as an alternative approach to overcome the shortcoming of the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) process.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Polymers and the Environment
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Biorefinery
  • Cupriavidus necator
  • Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate
  • Pretreatment
  • Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)
  • Waste paper

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this