Greenhouse gas emissions from the production of cereals and livestock across high-, middle- And low-income countries

Azmat Gani*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study examines the effect of cereal and livestock production-induced greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) across high-, middle- and low-income countries from 2002 to 2016. A structural equation formulated within an environmental modeling framework is tested using the balanced panel-corrected standard errors estimation procedure. The findings showed that total food production is strongly correlated with methane and nitrous oxide in high-income countries and nitrous oxide emissions in middle-income countries. After disaggregating total food production into cereal and livestock production, the findings revealed that cereal production is positively and statistically significantly correlated with nitrous oxide emissions in high- and middle-income countries. The findings also confirmed that livestock production is positively and statistically significantly correlated with methane and nitrous oxide emissions in high-income countries. Incomes, industrial expansion, forest cover and education are other strong common determinants of GHGs in all three income categories of countries. The prime policy implication of this finding is the need for the food producers to transit toward environmentally cleaner and sustainable food production systems that mitigate GHGs and improve environmental performance and comply with the broader objectives of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 12, 13 and 15 (United Nations, 2015a, p. 3) relating to sustainable production, climate action and life on land, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
JournalRenewable Agriculture and Food Systems
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Cereal
  • food
  • incomes
  • livestock
  • methane
  • nitrous oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

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