Peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (PBHC) are the standard source of support for high-dose chemotherapy because of faster recovery of marrow function. Unfortunately, a proportion of patients are unable to mobilize adequate progenitors to proceed to autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT). Granulocyte-CSF-stimulated BM-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells (BMHC) may circumvent this problem. From 1999 to 2006, 52 patients (cases) with AML, Hodgkin (HL) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in whom PBHC mobilization failed underwent a G-CSF-stimulated bone marrow harvest and proceeded to AHCT. Their outcome was compared with 422 patients (controls) with AML, HL and NHL undergoing AHCT using only PBHC. Twenty-three patients received BMHC alone and 29 patients recieved a combination of PBHC and BMHC. Median engraftment time for neutrophils (>0.5 × 109/l) and platelets (>20 × 109/l) were 14 and 27 days, but significantly longer when compared with controls (11days, 11 days, P<0.0001). Patients receiving both PBHC and BMHC had faster engraftment, when compared with those receiving BMHC alone (P<0.001). In conclusion, performing an AHCT using G-CSF-stimulated BMHC in patients failing PBHC collection is feasible with faster engraftment seen in patients receiving both BMHC and PBHC over BMHC alone.
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