Fondaparinux is a synthetic pentasaccharide belonging to a new group of anticoagulants that inhibit thrombin formation by inhibiting Factor Xa, which is located at the crossing of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. It has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile, and its effect is predictable and the drug does not need platelet monitoring. Current evidence suggest that fondaparinux is as effective as, if not more than, enoxaparin in the prevention of venous thromboembolism in the postoperative period. It has also been found to have similar effectiveness to enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin in the treatment of venous and pulmonary embolism, respectively. In the field of cardiology, studies have demonstrated that in the setting of acute coronary syndromes, treatment with fondaparinux is not inferior to enoxaparin in preventing major cardiac outcomes, but it is associated with lower risk of bleeding complications, irrespective of the use of percutaneous coronary intervention. During percutaneous coronary intervention, there is a slightly increased risk of catheter thrombosis, which is removed when used along with unfractionated heparin. However, in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the benefit has been shown in those either receiving thrombolysis or not undergoing any revascularization, but not in subjects undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention where unfractionated heparin is still preferred.
- Factor Xa
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine