First detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in common kestrel falcon (Falco tinnunculus) in Egypt

Reham M. ElBakrey, Shimaa M.G. Mansour, Haytham Ali, David E.B. Knudsen, Amal A.M. Eid*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) poses threats to animal and human health worldwide. A common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) was submitted to Avian and Rabbit Medicine Department, Zagazig University, Egypt. It exhibited torticollis, incoordination, and inability to stand. Conjunctivitis and crust formation were seen. Postmortem findings revealed congestion in internal organs and greenish content in gizzard. No avian pox virus was detected in cutaneous lesions neither in histopathological sections nor in PCR. The presence of HPAIV H5N1 was confirmed by both virus isolation and RT-PCR. The mean death time of virus in chicken embryo is 36.2 hours. Influenza A virus antigen was detected in renal glomerular tufts and neurons of the submucosal plexus of the intestine of falcon by IHC. This paper describes the isolation of HPAIV H5N1 in falcon with systemic infection suggests that common kestrel falcon can be susceptible to HPAIV and could be a source of infection to other birds and human.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S9-S14
JournalJapanese Journal of Veterinary Research
Publication statusPublished - 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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