Fertility and its proximate determinants in Bangladesh: evidence from the 1993/94 Demographic and Health Survey.

M. M. Islam*, A. Al Mamun, R. Bairagi

*Corresponding author for this work

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11 Citations (Scopus)


This study examined determinants of fertility in Bangladesh. Data were obtained from the 1993-94 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey among a nationally representative 2-stage sample of 9640 ever-married females aged 10-49 years. Findings indicate that the age-specific marital fertility rate was highest among women aged 15-19 years. The total fertility rate was 3.44 births/woman in 1993-94 and 5.12 births/woman in 1989. The interval between marriage and first birth declined more for younger cohorts. The proportion of women who had a child within 5 years increased. Over 60% were married under the age of 14 years. The proportion currently married has remained stable since 1981. The number of those never married has increased, especially among women aged 15-19 years. 44.6% of currently married women used family planning; 36.2% used modern methods and 8.4% used traditional ones. Prevalence was highest for the pill, followed by female sterilization. 48% of infants were breast-fed on the first day. Breast-feeding duration averaged 30 months. Duration of postpartum amenorrhea averaged 12 months. 0.5% reported induced abortion. Analysis of proximate determinants indicates that contraception accounted for 39.0% of fertility decline; lactational infecundability accounted for 34.7%. Marriage patterns accounted for 23.9%. The fertility inhibition of contraception varied by religion. Contraception had the highest impact among higher educated, upper class, urban, and non-Muslim women. Lactational infecundability had the highest impact among poor, nonworking, illiterate, and non-Muslim women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-22
Number of pages20
JournalAsia-Pacific population journal / United Nations
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Demography


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