Factors Impacting Life Expectancy in Bahrain: Evidence from 1971 to 2020 Data

Anak Agung Bagus Wirayuda, Abdulaziz Al-Mahrezi, Moon Fai Chan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The factors impacting life expectancy (LE) are important to a country as LE reflects the essential quality of its population. Previous studies showed that other than economic factors, health status and resources (HSR) and sociodemographic (SD) also affect LE. This area has not been previously studied in Bahrain, especially in the past five decades. Hence, this study aims to develop an explanatory model for HSR, macroeconomic (ME), and SD factors on LE in Bahrain. The research was a retrospective, time-series design that collected the annual published data on SD, ME, HSR, and LE in Bahrain's population from 1971 to 2020. The data were analyzed using the partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) method. The result shows that ME (0.463, P <.001) and HSR (0.595, P <.001) have significant direct effects on LE. ME has an indirect effect (0.488, P <.001) on LE via SD and HSR, and SD has an indirect effect (0.496, P <.001) on LE through HSR. During the socioeconomic downturn, the health resources provision should not be reduced as it directly affects LE. An integrated policy addressing socioeconomic and health-related factors could protect the future of Bahrain's population health outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Health Services
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • Bahrain
  • determinants
  • factors
  • health resources
  • health status
  • life expectancy
  • macroeconomic
  • sociodemographic
  • structural equation model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy

Cite this