Exogenous glycinebetaine and salicylic acid application improves water relations, allometry and quality of hybrid sunflower under water deficit conditions

M. Hussain, M. A. Malik, M. Farooq*, M. B. Khan, M. Akram, M. F. Saleem

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Citations (Scopus)


Limited water availability hampers the sustainability of crop production. Exogenous application of glycinebetaine (GB) and salicylic acid (SA) has been found very effective in reducing the adverse effects of water scarcity. This study was conducted to examine the possible role of exogenous GB and SA application in improving the growth and water relations of hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under different irrigation regimes. There were three levels of irrigation, viz. control (normal irrigations), water stress at budding stage (irrigation missing at budding stage) and water stress at flowering stage (FS) (irrigation missing at FS). GB and SA were applied exogenously at 100 and 0.724 mm respectively, each at the budding and FS. Control plants did not receive application of GB and SA. Water stress reduced the leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), crop growth rate (CGR), leaf relative water contents, water potential, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, achene yield and water use efficiency. Nevertheless, exogenous GB and SA application appreciably improved these attributes under water stress. However, exogenous GB application at the FS was more effective than other treatments. Net assimilation rate was not affected by water stress as well as application of GB and SA. The protein contents were considerably increased by water stress at different growth stages, but were reduced by exogenous GB and SA application. The effects of water stress and foliar application of GB were more pronounced when applied at FS than at the budding stage. Moreover, exogenous GB application was only advantageous under stress conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-109
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Agronomy and Crop Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Drought stress
  • Exogenous application
  • Glycinebetaine
  • Growth
  • Salicylic acid
  • Sunflower
  • Water relations
  • Water use efficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science

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