TY - JOUR

T1 - Existence and stability of periodic orbits of periodic difference equations with delays

AU - Alsharawi, Ziyad

AU - Angelos, James

AU - Elaydi, Saber

PY - 2008/1

Y1 - 2008/1

N2 - In this paper, we investigate the existence and stability of periodic orbits of the p-periodic difference equation with delays x(n) = f(n - 1, x(n-k)). We show that the periodic orbits of this equation depend on the periodic orbits of p autonomous equations when p divides k. When p is not a divisor of k, the periodic orbits depend on the periodic orbits of gcd(p, k) nonautonomous p/gcd(p, k)-periodic difference equations. We give formulas for calculating the number of different periodic orbits under certain conditions. In addition, when p and k are relatively prime integers, we introduce what we call the pk-Sharkovsky's ordering of the positive integers, and extend Sharkovsky's theorem to periodic difference equations with delays. Finally, we characterize global stability and show that the period of a globally asymptotically stable orbit must be divisible by p.

AB - In this paper, we investigate the existence and stability of periodic orbits of the p-periodic difference equation with delays x(n) = f(n - 1, x(n-k)). We show that the periodic orbits of this equation depend on the periodic orbits of p autonomous equations when p divides k. When p is not a divisor of k, the periodic orbits depend on the periodic orbits of gcd(p, k) nonautonomous p/gcd(p, k)-periodic difference equations. We give formulas for calculating the number of different periodic orbits under certain conditions. In addition, when p and k are relatively prime integers, we introduce what we call the pk-Sharkovsky's ordering of the positive integers, and extend Sharkovsky's theorem to periodic difference equations with delays. Finally, we characterize global stability and show that the period of a globally asymptotically stable orbit must be divisible by p.

KW - Global stability

KW - Periodic difference equations

KW - Periodic orbits

KW - Sharkovsky's theorem

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U2 - 10.1142/S0218127408020239

DO - 10.1142/S0218127408020239

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:43949114849

VL - 18

SP - 203

EP - 217

JO - International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering

JF - International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering

SN - 0218-1274

IS - 1

ER -