Eutectic solvents for the removal of residual palm oil-based biodiesel catalyst

K. Shahbaz, F. S. Mjalli, M. A. Hashim, I. M. Alnashef

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The production of biodiesel through transesterification requires numerous purification steps to remove the unreacted components and unwanted products for the biodiesel grade to satisfy the international standard specifications EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. The residual catalyst (KOH) is one of those impurities which must be removed at the end of alkali-catalyzed transesterification reaction. In this work, nine Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) as well as another nine DESs based on methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (MTPB) salts with different compositions were synthesized and utilized as solvents for the removal of residual KOH content from palm oil-based biodiesel. The results revealed that the removal efficiency of KOH by all used DESs increased with increase in DES:biodiesel molar ratio and the mole fraction of hydrogen bond donors (HBD) in mixture of salt:HBD apart from 2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide as HBD. The ChCl:glycerol DESs and MTPB:glycerol DESs proved their superiority in removing the KOH from palm oil-based biodiesel with an average removal efficiency of 98.59% and 97.57% respectively. These DESs fulfilled both international standards specification for KOH content at all DES:biodiesel molar ratios except for the 0.75:1 (DES1:biodiesel) ratio. The optimum molar ratio of DES to biodiesel for each DES was calculated and the decontamination factors for KOH removal at the optimum molar ratios for all tested DESs were determined. The reusability of these DESs for removing KOH from palm oil-based biodiesel was also investigated. Furthermore, it was found that the tested DESs were able to decrease the biodiesel water content to a value below that stated by the international standards.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)216-222
Number of pages7
JournalSeparation and Purification Technology
Volume81
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 22 2011

Fingerprint

Palm oil
Biofuels
Biodiesel
Eutectics
Catalysts
Hydrogen bonds
Transesterification
Choline
palm oil
Bromides
Glycerol
Salts
Specifications
Decontamination
Reusability
Alkalies
Water content
Purification

Keywords

  • Biodiesel
  • Deep eutectic solvent
  • KOH
  • Palm oil
  • Removal
  • Transesterification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Filtration and Separation

Cite this

Eutectic solvents for the removal of residual palm oil-based biodiesel catalyst. / Shahbaz, K.; Mjalli, F. S.; Hashim, M. A.; Alnashef, I. M.

In: Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 81, No. 2, 22.09.2011, p. 216-222.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shahbaz, K. ; Mjalli, F. S. ; Hashim, M. A. ; Alnashef, I. M. / Eutectic solvents for the removal of residual palm oil-based biodiesel catalyst. In: Separation and Purification Technology. 2011 ; Vol. 81, No. 2. pp. 216-222.
@article{4f0356db82c841459cde83f03cdbffd6,
title = "Eutectic solvents for the removal of residual palm oil-based biodiesel catalyst",
abstract = "The production of biodiesel through transesterification requires numerous purification steps to remove the unreacted components and unwanted products for the biodiesel grade to satisfy the international standard specifications EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. The residual catalyst (KOH) is one of those impurities which must be removed at the end of alkali-catalyzed transesterification reaction. In this work, nine Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) as well as another nine DESs based on methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (MTPB) salts with different compositions were synthesized and utilized as solvents for the removal of residual KOH content from palm oil-based biodiesel. The results revealed that the removal efficiency of KOH by all used DESs increased with increase in DES:biodiesel molar ratio and the mole fraction of hydrogen bond donors (HBD) in mixture of salt:HBD apart from 2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide as HBD. The ChCl:glycerol DESs and MTPB:glycerol DESs proved their superiority in removing the KOH from palm oil-based biodiesel with an average removal efficiency of 98.59{\%} and 97.57{\%} respectively. These DESs fulfilled both international standards specification for KOH content at all DES:biodiesel molar ratios except for the 0.75:1 (DES1:biodiesel) ratio. The optimum molar ratio of DES to biodiesel for each DES was calculated and the decontamination factors for KOH removal at the optimum molar ratios for all tested DESs were determined. The reusability of these DESs for removing KOH from palm oil-based biodiesel was also investigated. Furthermore, it was found that the tested DESs were able to decrease the biodiesel water content to a value below that stated by the international standards.",
keywords = "Biodiesel, Deep eutectic solvent, KOH, Palm oil, Removal, Transesterification",
author = "K. Shahbaz and Mjalli, {F. S.} and Hashim, {M. A.} and Alnashef, {I. M.}",
year = "2011",
month = "9",
day = "22",
doi = "10.1016/j.seppur.2011.07.032",
language = "English",
volume = "81",
pages = "216--222",
journal = "Separation and Purification Technology",
issn = "1383-5866",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Eutectic solvents for the removal of residual palm oil-based biodiesel catalyst

AU - Shahbaz, K.

AU - Mjalli, F. S.

AU - Hashim, M. A.

AU - Alnashef, I. M.

PY - 2011/9/22

Y1 - 2011/9/22

N2 - The production of biodiesel through transesterification requires numerous purification steps to remove the unreacted components and unwanted products for the biodiesel grade to satisfy the international standard specifications EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. The residual catalyst (KOH) is one of those impurities which must be removed at the end of alkali-catalyzed transesterification reaction. In this work, nine Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) as well as another nine DESs based on methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (MTPB) salts with different compositions were synthesized and utilized as solvents for the removal of residual KOH content from palm oil-based biodiesel. The results revealed that the removal efficiency of KOH by all used DESs increased with increase in DES:biodiesel molar ratio and the mole fraction of hydrogen bond donors (HBD) in mixture of salt:HBD apart from 2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide as HBD. The ChCl:glycerol DESs and MTPB:glycerol DESs proved their superiority in removing the KOH from palm oil-based biodiesel with an average removal efficiency of 98.59% and 97.57% respectively. These DESs fulfilled both international standards specification for KOH content at all DES:biodiesel molar ratios except for the 0.75:1 (DES1:biodiesel) ratio. The optimum molar ratio of DES to biodiesel for each DES was calculated and the decontamination factors for KOH removal at the optimum molar ratios for all tested DESs were determined. The reusability of these DESs for removing KOH from palm oil-based biodiesel was also investigated. Furthermore, it was found that the tested DESs were able to decrease the biodiesel water content to a value below that stated by the international standards.

AB - The production of biodiesel through transesterification requires numerous purification steps to remove the unreacted components and unwanted products for the biodiesel grade to satisfy the international standard specifications EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. The residual catalyst (KOH) is one of those impurities which must be removed at the end of alkali-catalyzed transesterification reaction. In this work, nine Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on choline chloride (ChCl) as well as another nine DESs based on methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (MTPB) salts with different compositions were synthesized and utilized as solvents for the removal of residual KOH content from palm oil-based biodiesel. The results revealed that the removal efficiency of KOH by all used DESs increased with increase in DES:biodiesel molar ratio and the mole fraction of hydrogen bond donors (HBD) in mixture of salt:HBD apart from 2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide as HBD. The ChCl:glycerol DESs and MTPB:glycerol DESs proved their superiority in removing the KOH from palm oil-based biodiesel with an average removal efficiency of 98.59% and 97.57% respectively. These DESs fulfilled both international standards specification for KOH content at all DES:biodiesel molar ratios except for the 0.75:1 (DES1:biodiesel) ratio. The optimum molar ratio of DES to biodiesel for each DES was calculated and the decontamination factors for KOH removal at the optimum molar ratios for all tested DESs were determined. The reusability of these DESs for removing KOH from palm oil-based biodiesel was also investigated. Furthermore, it was found that the tested DESs were able to decrease the biodiesel water content to a value below that stated by the international standards.

KW - Biodiesel

KW - Deep eutectic solvent

KW - KOH

KW - Palm oil

KW - Removal

KW - Transesterification

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80052419311&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=80052419311&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.seppur.2011.07.032

DO - 10.1016/j.seppur.2011.07.032

M3 - Article

VL - 81

SP - 216

EP - 222

JO - Separation and Purification Technology

JF - Separation and Purification Technology

SN - 1383-5866

IS - 2

ER -