Estimation of adult patient doses for common diagnostic X-ray examinations in Wad-madani, Sudan: Derivation of local diagnostic reference levels

I. I. Suliman, T. S. Mohammedzein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)


The objectives of this study were to estimate patient dose in some common diagnostic X-ray examinations. Radiation doses were estimated for 307 patients in six public hospitals comprising 7 X-ray units in Wad-madani, Sudan. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was estimated in a three step protocol: First, X-ray unit output Y(d) was measured at a distance, d for different peak tube voltages and tube loadings (mAs). Next, incident air kerma (Ki) was calculated from Y(d) using inverse square law combined with patient exposure factors. ESAK was calculated from Ki using backscatter factor, B. Mean ESAK values are comparable to those reported in other countries and are below reference dose levels. The estimated mean ESAK values are: 0.3, 2.2, 2.2, 2.9, 2.8, 3.1, and 7.5 mGy for chest PA, Skull AP/PA, Skull LAT, Abdomen, Pelvis AP, Lumbar Spine AP and Lumbar Spine LAT examinations, respectively. The results are used for dose optimization, and to propose local diagnostic reference levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)425-429
Number of pages5
JournalAustralasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014



  • Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK)
  • Local diagnostic reference levels
  • Patient dosimetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Medicine(all)

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