Pharmaceutical wastewater contamination via azithromycin antibiotic and the continuous emergence of some strains of bacteria, cancer, and the Covid-19 virus. Azithromycin wastewater treatment using the biosynthesized Hematite nanoparticles (α-HNPs) and the biocompatible activities of the resulted nanosystem were reported. Biofabrication of α-HNPs using Echinaceapurpurea liquid extract as a previously reported approach was implemented. An evaluation of the adsorption technique via the biofabricated α-HNPs for the removal of the Azr drug contaminant from the pharmaceutical wastewater was conducted. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamic parameters of the Azr on the α-HNPs surface have been investigated as a batch mode of equilibrium experiments. Antibacterial, anticancer, and antiviral activities were conducted as Azr@α-HNPs. The optimum conditions for the adsorption study were conducted as solution pH = 10, 150 mg dose of α-HNPs, and Azr concentration 400 mg/L at 293 K. The most fitted isothermal model was described according to the Langmuir model at adsorption capacity 114.05 mg/g in a pseudo-second-order kinetic mechanistic at R2 0.9999. Thermodynamic study manifested that the adsorption behavior is a spontaneous endothermic chemisorption process. Subsequently, studying the biocompatible applications of the Azr@α-HNPs. Azr@α-HNPs antibacterial activity revealed a synergistic effect in the case of Gram-positive more than Gram-negative bacteria. IC50 of Azr@α-HNPs cytotoxicity against MCF7, HepG2, and HCT116 cell lines was investigated and it was found to be 78.1, 81.7, and 93.4 µg/mL respectively. As the first investigation of the antiviral use of Azr@α-HNPs against SARS-CoV-2, it was achieved a safety therapeutic index equal to 25.4 revealing a promising antiviral activity. An admirable impact of the use of the biosynthesized α-HNPs and its removal nanosystem product Azr@α-HNPs was manifested and it may be used soon as a platform of the drug delivery nanosystem for the biomedical applications.
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