Enhancing the chemiluminescence intensity of a KMnO4 formaldehyde system for estimating the total phenolic content in honey samples using a novel nanodroplet mixing approach in a microfluidics platform

Haider A.J. Al Lawati, Baqia Al Mughairy, Iman Al Lawati, Fakhreldin O. Suliman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


A novel mixing approach was utilized with a highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method to determine the total phenolic content (TPC) in honey samples using an acidic potassium permanganate-formaldehyde system. The mixing approach was based on exploiting the mixing efficiency of nanodroplets generated in a microfluidic platform. Careful optimization of the instrument setup and various experimental conditions were employed to obtain excellent sensitivity. The mixing efficiency of the droplets was compared with the CL signal intensity obtained using the common serpentine chip design, with both approaches using at a total flow rate of 15 μl min-1; the results showed that the nanodroplets provided 600% higher CL signal intensity at this low flow rate. Using the optimum conditions, calibration equations, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA), kaempferol (KAM), quercetin (QRC) and catechin (CAT) were obtained. The LOD ranged from 6.2 ppb for CA to 11.0 ppb for QRC. Finally, the method was applied for the determination of TPC in several local and commercial honey samples.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018



  • Chemiluminescence
  • Droplet microfluidics
  • Honey
  • Mixing
  • Potassium permanganate
  • Total phenolic content

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)

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