Sixty-eight children 2 months to 14 years of age were admitted with status epilepticus to Sultan Qaboos University Hospital from November 1993 to December 2001. Thirty-eight children (55.9%) had refractory status epilepticus and 30 (44.1%) had established status epilepticus. The children with refractory status epilepticus had received intravenous or per rectal diazepam and intravenous phenytoin/phenobarbital (either or both) before continuous infusion of midazolam was given. Fifty-one children received continuous midazolam infusion. In 38 children with refractory status epilepticus, the midazolam infusion was given in addition to the long-acting antiepilepsy drug, whereas 13 (18.8%) children needed only midazolam to control the established status epilepticus. Seventeen (25%) children were controlled with phenytoin sodium alone. Midazolam was given 0. 15 mg/kg/minute initially as bolus in 1 minute, followed by 1 to 7 μg/kg/minute as continuous infusion. The status could not be controlled in one child (1.5%) suffering from neurodegenerative disease. Two children needed mechanical ventilation following prolonged apnea after diazepam administration in one and diazepam plus phenobarbital in the other. No metabolic derangements or compromise of vital functions was noted on midazolam infusion. All children made a complete recovery. There was one death related to meningoencephalitis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Clinical Neurology