Fresh fruits like bananas are very susceptible to mechanical damage during postharvest handling which can result in a substantial decline in quality. The study aims to evaluate the effect of bruise damage and storage temperatures on the quality of banana fruits after 48 h storage. Each ‘Grand Naine’ banana fruit was impacted once by using a drop impact test using three different heights (10, 30, and 50 cm) and storage temperatures (13 and 22 °C) after 48 h of storage. Different quality analyses were measured like bruise measurements (impact energy, bruise area, bruise volume, and bruise susceptibility), weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), color (L*, a*, b*, hue°, chroma, yellowness index, yellowness value) headspace gases (respiration and ethylene production rate). The results showed that bruise measurements (bruise area, bruise volume, and bruise susceptibility) were highly affected by drop height. The quality parameters like weight, color, total soluble solids and headspace gases were affected by drop height and storage condition. Weight loss, total soluble solids, respiration rate, and ethylene production rate increased as drop height and storage temperature rise. Storage at ambient conditions (22 °C) accelerated bruising occurrence in banana fruits. Fewer changes were observed after 48 h of storage. The least value of yellowness index was observed on the non-bruised banana fruits (84.03) under 13 °C storage conditions. The findings of the study can provide baseline data to understand the mechanical damage mechanism on fruit quality, hoping to create awareness and educate farming communities and consumers. Storage temperature management is another approach that needs to be followed to reduce the occurrence of mechanical damage in fresh produce.