Chronic renal failure (CRF) occurring naturally in patients or induced by subtotal nephrectomy in rats induces several alterations in the cardiovascular system (CVS). However, the effect of chemically induced CRF in rats on the CVS is less well known. We induced CRF in rats by feeding adenine (0.75%, w/w, four weeks) and investigated the effect of the ensuing CRF on the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Further, we investigated the effect of giving acacia gum (AG, 10%, w/v) in the drinking water concomitantly with adenine on the above parameters. AG has been previously shown to ameliorate the severity of CRF in humans and rats. We confirmed here that adenine-induced CRF significantly increased the plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, and reduced creatinine clearance. Additionally, it significantly increased both systolic and diastolic BP, with no significant effect on HR. Both of these actions were significantly mitigated by AG treatment. The antihypertensive angiotenisn-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril (10mg/kg) was given by gavage to rats concomitantly with adenine, significantly reduced the rise in blood pressure induced by adenine. In conclusion, adenine-induced CRF in rats significantly increased BP, and this was significantly mitigated by administration of AG. Possible mechanisms of these changes and the protective effect of AG will be investigated.