Distance, virtual, electronic, mobile and ubiquitous learning environments: Taxonomy study

Mohamed Sarrab*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


Distance, virtual, electronic, mobile and ubiquitous learning are widely used as interchangeable terms. It is uncommon that researchers face difficulties to distinguish between different learning environments. A clear understanding of the concepts of these learning models and their fundamental differences are necessary for both learning and educational communities. This article reveals the differences and reviews the concepts of learning models. A mixed-method analysis of research articles has been implemented to find out an appropriate set of comparison criteria between learning models including context, accessibility, availability, time and place restriction, dependence, capacity, communication and interaction. Based on the selected criteria’s the results reveal that there are a number of differences between learning models and distinguishing between learning models is important. This is to assure clear understanding of the learning concepts and thus build reliable communication between different members of technical teams, clients, vendors, and the research community.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPervasiveHealth
Subtitle of host publicationPervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9781450366397
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes
Event7th International Conference on Information and Education Technology, ICIET 2019 - Aizu-Wakamatsu, Japan
Duration: Mar 29 2019Mar 31 2019

Publication series

NamePervasiveHealth: Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare
VolumePart F148391
ISSN (Print)2153-1633


Conference7th International Conference on Information and Education Technology, ICIET 2019


  • Distance learning
  • Electronic learning
  • Mobile learning
  • Traditional learning
  • Ubiquities learning
  • Virtual learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Informatics

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