Dimensionality and hierarchy of the SDQ in a non-Western milieu: A test of self-concept invariance across gender

Maher M. Abu-Hilal, Abdul Qader A Aal-Hussain

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18 Citations (Scopus)


This study tested the construct validity and invariance of a multidimensional measure of self-concept, the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ-I), on a non-Western sample of boys and girls. Separate exploratory factor analyses of data from a sample of 566 students (302 boys, 264 girls) clearly identified five of the seven proposed factors. The covariance analysis supported a seven-factor model for boys and girls. The number of factors and the pattern of factor loading and uniqueness were invariant across genders. Factor covariances were not clearly invariant across genders, thus providing support for the differential socialization hypothesis. That is, the Arab girls made a better distinction of their worthiness in different areas than boys did. A model with two higher-order factors was found to be better than models with one or three higher-order factors. Coefficients alpha for the subscales ranged from .74 to .92 for girls and .76 to .93 for boys.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-553
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1997


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Social Psychology

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