Development of Novel Methods to Determine Crystalline Glucose Content of Honey Based on DSC, HPLC, and Viscosity Measurements, and Their Use to Examine the Setting Propensity of Honey

Nasser A. Al-Habsi, Fred J. Davis, Keshavan Niranjan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)


Crystallization must occur in honey in order to produce set or creamed honey; however, the process must occur in a controlled manner in order to obtain an acceptable product. As a consequence, reliable methods are needed to measure the crystal content of honey (φ{symbol} expressed as kg crystal per kg honey), which can also be implemented with relative ease in industrial production facilities. Unfortunately, suitable methods do not currently exist. This article reports on the development of 2 independent offline methods to measure the crystal content in honey based on differential scanning calorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography. The 2 methods gave highly consistent results on the basis of paired t-test involving 143 experimental points (P > 0.05, r2 = 0.99). The crystal content also correlated with the relative viscosity, defined as the ratio of the viscosity of crystal containing honey to that of the same honey when all crystals are dissolved, giving the following correlation: μr=1-1398.8∅2.318. This correlation can be used to estimate the crystal content of honey in industrial production facilities. The crystal growth rate at a temperature of 14 °C-the normal crystallization temperature used in practice-was linear, and the growth rate also increased with the total glucose content in the honey.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Food Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013



  • Crystallization
  • Fructose
  • Glucose monohydrate
  • Honey
  • Viscosity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

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