Demographic pattern and clinical characteristics of patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Kuwait

Adnan T. Abal*, B. Jayakrishnan, Shahid Parwer, Abdul Salam El Shamy, Mousa Khadadah, Adel Ayed, Alia Al Alawi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (SciVal)


Objective: The aim of this study was to document various clinical factors that are likely to be of help in the control of tuberculosis in Kuwait. Subjects and Methods: Details of patients with sputum positive for acid-fast bacilli in the period from January 1998 to December 2000 were collected retrospectively from the case records and population statistics from government sources. The data were then tabulated and analyzed. Results: Of the 526 cases, 83.5% were expatriates and 16.5% Kuwaiti; 373 (70.9%) were male. Of the expatriates, 66.7% were from Asia and the Far East, 5.7% were ≥60 years. The annual incidence was 8.34 per 100,000 population. The lowest incidence was observed in the Jahrah governorate with an overall incidence of 5 (2.0 among Kuwaitis and 6.4 among expatriates) per 100,000 population. The highest incidence overall (10.2) and among Kuwaitis (4.1) was observed in the Farwaniya governorate, while the highest incidence among expatriates was seen in the Capital governorate (13.4). Radiologically, 94 (19.5%) had minimal, 246 (51.5%) had moderately advanced and 141 (29.3%) far-advanced disease. The majority of the patients (72%) had only + status for AFB in the smear. Hypercalcemia (25.7%), hyponatremia (22.15%) and hyperglycemia (29.9%) were common in the patients. Mean serum albumin was low (28.7 ± 5.5 g/l). Two hundred and forty-seven (47.2%) were declared cured while 116 (22.2%) completed treatment. Comparison between nationals and expatriates showed a significant difference only for age, smoking status, defaulter rate and place of residence. Conclusion: The lowest regional incidence was found in the Jahrah governorate. Both biochemical abnormalities and radiologically advanced presentations were common. Disease pattern and response to treatment was purely individual and did not differ with respect to nationality or race.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)306-312
Number of pages7
JournalMedical Principles and Practice
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Hypercalcemia
  • Sputum smear
  • Tuberculosis epidemiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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