In the Western world, endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of the female genital tract and is the fourth most common cancer in women. Two different clinicopathological subtypes are recognised: the oestrogen-related (type I, endometrioid) and the non-oestrogen related (type II, non-endometrioid). This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, genetic alterations during endometrial carcinogenesis, features of tumours and precursors and early detection of the disease. Insights into the epigenetic alterations, with emphasis on DNA methylation during endometrial carcinogenesis, and their diagnostic value are also provided.
- Carcinoma, Endometrioid/genetics
- Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics
- DNA Methylation
- Endometrial Neoplasms/epidemiology
- Epigenesis, Genetic
- Risk Factors