Objective: To report the cumulative articular and extraarticular damage in Arab children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and to identify variables that correlate with disease damage. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study among 14 pediatric rheumatology centers from 7 Arab countries. JIA patients who met the International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification criteria and had a disease duration of >1 year were enrolled. Disease activity status was assessed using the Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report. Disease damage was assessed by the Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index, articular (JADI-A) and extraarticular (JADI-E). Results: A total of 702 (471 female) JIA patients with a median age of 11.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 8.0–14.0 years) were studied. Median age at disease onset was 5 years (IQR 2.0–9.0 years) and the median disease duration was 4 years (IQR 2.0–7.0 years). The most frequent JIA categories were oligoarticular JIA (34.9%), polyarticular JIA (29.5%), and systemic JIA (24.5%). Clinical remission was achieved in 73.9% of patients. At the last clinic visit, 193 patients experienced joint damage, with a mean ± SD JADI-A score of 1.7 ± 4.5, while 156 patients had extraarticular damage, with a mean ± SD JADI-E score of 0.5 ± 1.1. Patients with enthesitis-related arthritis had the highest JADI-A score. JADI-A correlated significantly with the presence of a family history of JIA. JADI-A and JADI-E had a significant correlation with long disease duration. Conclusion: Cumulative damage was common in this Arab JIA cohort, and consanguinity and JIA in a sibling were frequent findings and were associated with a greater cumulative damage.
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