Cross-cultural Validation of the Full Range Test of Visual Motor Integration Used with Children in Four Arab Countries

Mahmoud Mohamed Emam*, Asma A. Al-Attiyah, Amthal Alhuwilah, Huda Shaaban Awed, Ehab Omara

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


SIGNIFICANCE Arab countries have a shortage of culturally sensitive psychoeducational assessments. Tests of visual-motor integration are low in their linguistic demands, yet they are not culture-free. PURPOSE The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties and the validation of the Full Range Test of Visual Motor Integration (FRTVMI) across four Arabic speaking countries, namely, Sultanate of Oman, Kuwait, Qatar, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (n = 2318). METHODS The FRTVMI was administered to 2318 children from four Gulf countries. Criterion measures included the Reading Observation Scale and the achievement scores in reading. All raw data obtained for the FRTVMI were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences and R package (version 3.5.1, 2018). Construct validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and interrater reliability of FRTVMI were also examined. RESULTS The means for Cronbach α, intraclass correlation, and test-retest reliability across the four countries were 0.87, 0.87, and 0.90, respectively. Spearman ρ correlation between FRTVMI scores and Reading Observation Scale scores ranged between 0.16 and 0.51 across the four countries and were 0.57, 0.43, and 0.45 for male and female participants and the entire sample, respectively. The Spearman ρ correlations between FRTVMI scores and reading achievement scores ranged between 0.15 and 0.20 across the four countries and were 0.27, 0.29, and 0.26 for male and female participants and the entire sample, respectively. The modified model indices showed that the FRTVMI was adequate for use in the four countries and for both male and female participants. The reliability estimates for the test were high, whereas the concurrent validity estimates were moderate. CONCLUSIONS The unidimensionality of the test should be taken with caution, as we found some indication for the multidimensionality of the test factor structure. Implications for cross-cultural assessment are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)644-653
Number of pages10
JournalOptometry and Vision Science
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry

Cite this