Coordinated intelligent frequency control incorporating battery energy storage system, minimum variable contribution of demand response, and variable load damping coefficient in isolated power systems

Amer Al-Hinai*, Hajer Alyammahi, Hassan Haes Alhelou

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Maintaining a generation-demand balance becomes more challenging nowadays due to the limited availability of traditional automatic generation control (AGC) and spinning reserves. In response to this concern, the purpose of the proposed paper is to bridge the gap by introducing battery energy storage system (BESS) control loop in the load frequency control (LFC) system. Furthermore, a minimum variable share of demand response (DR) is utilized as an additional mean to regulate the system frequency. The growing intermittency of controllable loads calls the awareness to incorporate frequency-sensitive loads by considering a variable load-damping coefficient in LFC problem. The presented control scheme demonstrates a stable power operation with the optimal sharing of BESS, dynamic DR, and the supplementary control loop. Moreover, because of the continuous and sudden variations in the demand, adaptive LFC controller is designed using fuzzy logic based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) tuning method. The proposed controller ensures a stable and robust frequency regulation of the system under load fluctuations. In this paper it is revealed that adding the BESS control loop is very effective in enhancing the performance of LFC as it can deliver fast power compensation. The obtained results prove the capability and effectiveness of the proposed method in an isolated power system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8030-8041
Number of pages12
JournalEnergy Reports
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Battery energy storage system
  • Demand response
  • Frequency-sensitive load
  • Fuzzy logic control
  • Load frequency control
  • Load-damping coefficient
  • Particle swarm optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy(all)

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