Background: The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [CA-MRSA] is unknown in Oman. Methods: Nasal and cell phones swabs were collected from hospital visitors and health-care workers on sterile polyester swabs and directly inoculated onto a mannitol salt agar containing oxacillin, allowing growth of methicillin-resistant microorganisms. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method on the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for vancomycin and teicoplanin against the resistant isolates of MRSA by the Epsilometer [E] test. A brief survey questionnaire was requested be filled to ascertain the exposure to known risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage. Results: Overall, nasal colonization with CA-MRSA was seen in 34 individuals (18%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =12.5%-23.5%), whereas, CA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 12 participants (6.3%, 95% CI =5.6%-6.98%). Nasal colonization prevalence with hospital-acquired [HA] MRSA was seen in 16 individuals (13.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] =7.5%-20.06%), whereas, HA-MRSA was additionally isolated from the cell phone surface in 3 participants (2.6%, 95% CI =1.7-4.54). Antibiotic sensitivity was 100% to linezolid and rifampicin in the CA-MRSA isolates. Antibiotic resistance to vancomycin and clindamycin varied between 9-11 % in the CA-MRSA isolates. Mean MIC for vancomycin amongst CA- and HA-MRSA were 6.3 and 9.3 μg/ml, whereas for teicoplanin they were 13 and 14 μg/ml respectively by the E-test. There was no statistically significant correlation between CA-MRSA nasal carriage and the risk factors (P > 0.05, Chi-square test). Conclusions: The prevalence of CA-MRSA in the healthy community hospital visitors was 18 % (95% CI, 12.5% to 23.5%) as compared to 13.8% HA-MRSA in the hospital health-care staff. Despite a significant prevalence of CA-MRSA, these strains were mostly sensitive. Recommendation: The universal techniques of hand washing, personal hygiene and sanitation are thus warranted.
|Journal||Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases