Comparison between tri-fuel (diesel-ethanol-biodiesel) emulsion with and without surfactant

M. Nazrul H.M. Bahrudin, A. N. Mukhtar, Ftwi Y. Hagos*, Rizalman Mamat, A. Adam Abdullah, Zainal Ambri Abdul Karim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)


In this project, the overall activities were carried out to compare tri-fuel (diesel-ethanol-biodiesel) emulsions with and without surfactant (Tween 80 and Span 80) in term of stability and physiochemical properties (density, calorific value, surface tension and kinematic viscosity) characteristics. Potential benefit includes micro- explosion phenomenon through mixing diesel fuel and alcohol has inspired researcher to find solution for immiscibility issue. Furthermore, biodiesel add-on apart from as oxygen source, the expectation will be to act as natural surfactant. The effectiveness of biodiesel in the absence of surfactant however is dubious while additional potential benefits compose with surfactant is unfamiliar. Hence, the objective of the study was to compare side by side, tri-fuel emulsion with and without surfactant in term of physicochemical properties. In this study, alternative fuel for CI engine called tri-fuel emulsions were prepared using Hielscher Ultrasonic Processor UP400S. The result of stability study revealed that tri-fuel emulsions with surfactant show promising stability reading compared to the tri-fuel emulsion without surfactant. Evidence was identified by having lower phase separation height and slower phase separation formation. Composition with 5% of ethanol content (D85E5B10) proves to be the best in term of physiochemical properties compared to other composition either with or without surfactant. However, the addition of surfactant in D85E5B10 shows more optimum properties.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Automotive Innovation Green Energy Vehicle, AiGEV 2018
EditorsWan Azmi Wan Hamzah, Saiful Anwar Che Ghani, Mohd. Shahrir Mohd Sani, Abdul Adam Abdullah
PublisherAmerican Institute of Physics Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9780735417878
Publication statusPublished - Jan 11 2019
Event3rd International Conference on Automotive Innovation Green Energy Vehicle, AiGEV 2018 - Kuantan, Malaysia
Duration: Jul 25 2018Jul 26 2018

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


Conference3rd International Conference on Automotive Innovation Green Energy Vehicle, AiGEV 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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